Soldier using a VR headset

Initiative for the Study of Emerging Threats

The security challenges facing the world are increasingly complex and varied. We help make sense of them.

About Us

In an age of rapidly evolving technology, declining democratic norms and principles, acts of aggression by state and non-state actors, and acute climate and public health crises, the world is confronting complex and dynamic security challenges. The Center for Global Affairs (CGA) at the NYU School of Professional Studies (SPS), in close collaboration with practitioners, has long been dedicated to identifying, understanding, and exploring responses to non-traditional and new security challenges. The Initiative for the Study of Emerging Threats (ISET) reflects and extends this mission.

ISET is led by Dr. Mary Beth Altier, head of the Transnational Security Concentration within CGA's MS in Global Affairs. The Initiative brings together faculty members, students, and affiliates of the program with key stakeholders to consider what challenges may be lurking just over the horizon, and how we can best prepare for them. ISET engages in peer-reviewed research and timely commentary, holds roundtables and other public events, and supports the CGA’s mission in developing and disseminating the knowledge and skills needed to address the challenges of the future through practical education provided by the MS in Global Affairs and the MS in Global Security, Conflict and Cyber Crime. ISET is proud to host yearly, the US Army War College’s International Strategic Crisis Negotiation Exercise for Masters’ students and also a number of Consulting Practicum where graduate students can engage first hand in applied research on pressing international, national, and human security issues.    

Key themes that ISET addresses include:

  • The changing conduct of war including the use of proxies and private military companies
  • Disinformation, malign influence operations, and subversion
  • Recent trends and technologies in violent extremism and insurgency
  • Radicalization, recruitment, and rehabilitation of terrorists and foreign fighters
  • Cyber-conflict and cybercrime
  • Transnational crime, including the trafficking of drugs, people, and weapons; and financial crime and money laundering
  • Corruption, especially as it impacts aid, development, and governance
  • Energy, climate change, and resource scarcity
  • Respect for human rights and privacy in the implementation of security measures or new technologies
Director's Message
Mary Beth Altier, MA, PhD
Director and Clinical Associate Professor

Welcome! The world is becoming increasingly interconnected and yet, we are currently witnessing nation-states turning inward rather than outward. Yet, threats like terrorism, climate change, pandemics, cyberattacks, biological and nuclear weapons, refugee flows, and corruption require innovative solutions and international cooperation. How do we anticipate and thwart new and emerging threats in an increasingly complex global order?

The Initiative for the Study of Emerging Threats (ISET) follows the broader mission of the NYU School of Professional Studies Center for Global Affairs in seeking not just to catalog and to describe the world's challenges, but to play an active, imaginative, and positive role in creating practical solutions to them. ISET draws upon an extraordinary and inspiring faculty, the efforts of a diverse and entrepreneurial group of graduate students and alumni, and the resources of New York University, one of the most well respected and globally connected institutions of higher learning in the world.

This is a new and ambitious endeavor and inevitably a work in progress, constantly evolving, forever exploring new risks and new strategies to prevent, minimize, or resolve them. We look forward to working with you in that mission.

Practical Education

The MSGA and MSGCC programs offer a flexible schedule, with the option of part-time study and taking courses across NYU departments. Students will gain comprehensive insight and become well-equipped to analyze some of the most pressing security issues of our time. Our curriculum delves into the causes and geopolitical effects of recent acts of state aggression, terrorism and civil war, rising far-right homegrown violent extremism, refugee crises, a proliferation of fragile states, climate catastrophes including food and water insecurity, intelligence and economic espionage, drug and human trafficking, global financial crime, and post-conflict reconstruction. We also examine how technology and globalization are reshaping the nature of warfare, from the evolution of cyber and hybrid warfare to autonomous weapons systems and the exploitation of social media, encryption, and artificial intelligence.

Group photo of CGA students

Recognizing the interdisciplinary nature of transnational security issues, students are offered the flexibility to combine their focus area with another concentration field, like Peacebuilding, International Relations, Environment and Energy Policy, International Development and Humanitarian Assistance, Human Rights and International Law, or Gender. Additionally, students can choose to complete specializations in Data Analytics, Global Risk, the United Nations, and Emerging Technologies.

Our program emphasizes the link between theory and practice, with most students engaging in internships or participating in our Consulting Practicum in New York City. For those seeking international experiences, our Global Field Intensives provide a unique opportunity for students to gain valuable in-country skills and knowledge. Additionally, we host an annual International Strategic Crisis Negotiations Exercise with the US Army War College, where students simulate high-level diplomatic negotiations surrounding a real-world conflict. Our students have also been invited to participate in the US Army War College’s National Strategy Seminar competition. Employers find our graduate students possess not only the requisite academic knowledge and analytic skills necessary to excel, but also the practical experience and connections in their field.

Graduates and current students find a wide range of employment opportunities across various sectors. Some work in government agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation, US State Department, National Geospatial Intelligence Agency, Defense Intelligence Agency, National Counterterrorism Center, the Department of Defense, New York Police Department, and the Manhattan District Attorney’s Office (or in similar organizations in their home countries). Alums of the program are also employed as intelligence, political risk, or security analysts in the private sector at esteemed organizations like Kroll, K2 Intelligence, NBC Universal, RANE, Ergo, Control Risks, Morgan Stanley, Teneo, AIG, StoneTurn, Facebook, and Dataminr. Others work for the UN or their country’s mission to the UN or contribute to international security issues and foreign policy discussions as research analysts at prominent think tanks, including the Institute for Strategic Dialogue, The Soufan Center, Human Rights First, New America, Network Contagion Research Institute, and the Council on Foreign Relations.

Faculty and Affiliates

Faculty

Mary Beth Altier

Clinical Associate Professor, Center for Global Affairs

Expertise: political violence and terrorism, political behavior, international security


Christopher Ankersen

Clinical Professor, Center for Global Affairs

Expertise: comprehensive approaches to conflict, civil-military relations, southeast Asia


Olajumoke Ayandele

Visiting Clinical Assistant Professor, Center for Global Affairs

Expertise: African politics, conflict, security studies


David Gutschmit

Adjunct Instructor, Center for Global Affairs

Expertise: intelligence, counterintelligence, economic espionage


Thomas Hill

Clinical Professor, Center for Global Affairs

Expertise: peacebuilding, Iraq, Kurdistan, conflict assessment education


John Kane

Clinical Associate Professor, Center for Global Affairs

Expertise:  political psychology, public opinion and behavior, quantitative methods 


Joshua Krasna

Adjunct Associate Professor, Center for Global Affairs Director, Center for Emerging Energy Politics in the Middle East, Foreign Policy Research Institute

Expertise: Middle East security, energy security, intelligence, decision-making


Michael Oppenheimer

Clinical Professor, Center for Global Affairs

Expertise: futures, global strategy, US foreign policy


Nicholas S. Reese

Adjunct Instructor, Center for Global Affairs
Co-Founder, Frontier Foundry

Expertise: ​​artificial intelligence, space, quantum  


Daniel J. Rogers

Adjunct Assistant Professor, Center for Global Affairs CEO, iVerify
Founder & Director, The Global Disinformation Index

Expertise: ​​cybersecurity, disinformation, emerging technologies


W.P.S. Sidhu

Clinical Professor, Center for Global Affairs

Expertise: WMD terrorism, international organizations, India, maritime security


Affiliates

Andrew S. Bowen

Analyst in Russian and European Affairs, Congressional Research Service

Expertise: money laundering, transnational crime, covert action, authoritarianism, and Russian security


Colin P. Clarke

Director of Research, The Soufan Group

Expertise: transnational terrorism, counterinsurgency, threat finance, and US grand strategy


Ana Davila

Head of Financial Crime Intelligence, Stripe

Expertise: money laundering, terrorism financing, criminal use of technology, fintech


Alex Goldenberg

Director of Intelligence, Network Contagion Research Institute

Expertise: online harms, information warfare, open-source intelligence


Alex Kobray

Vice President, Intelligence, Flashpoint

Expertise: counterterrorism, terrorists’ use of the internet/technology, cybersecurity


Simran Maker

Consultant on Geopolitics, International Security, and Foreign Policy

Expertise: counterterrorism and counterinsurgencies, state failure and statebuilding, and homeland security


Lukas Meija

Threat Context Lead, Microsoft

Expertise: Latin America, foreign information manipulation and interference, cyber-enabled influence


Samuel Powers

Director, Dataminr; Co-founder, Lens on Life Project

Expertise: counterterrorism, radicalization, narcoterrorism, social media, and data exploration


Our faculty, alumni, students, and affiliates engaged in applied, policy-relevant research. Below, we list a selection of recent publications. 

Journal Articles and Policy Reports

Altier, Mary Beth & Kane, John (2023). “Framing States: Unitary Actor Language & Public Support for Coercive Foreign Policy.” International Studies Quarterly.

Ayandele, Olajumoke & Ilunga, Yvan Yenda. (2023) African Wars in the 21st Century: Economic and Security Determinants for a Stable Africa. Workshop Report, New York University Center for the Study of Africa and the African Diaspora.

Thankur, Ramesh, Shatabhisa, Shetty, & Sidhu, W.P.S. (2023) “Introduction: China-India-Pakistan Nuclear Trilemma and the Imperative of Risk Reduction Measures.” Journal of Peace and Nuclear Disarmament.

Delton, Andrew D., Kane, John V., Petersen, Michael Bang, Roberts, Theresa E. and Cosmides, Leda (2022) “Partisans Use Emotions as Social Pressure: Feeling Anger and Gratitude at Exiters and Recruits in Political GroupsParty Politics.

Mason, Lilliana, Wronski, Julie, & Kane, John. V. (2021) “Activating Animus: The Uniquely Social Roots of Trump Support. American Political Science Review.

Mason, Lilliana, Wronski, Julie, & Kane, John. V. (2021) “Who’s at the Party? Group Sentiments, Knowledge, and Partisan IdentityJournal of Politics.

Altier, Mary Beth, Emma Leonard Boyle, and John Horgan (2021) “On Re-engagement and Risk Factors.” Terrorism & Political Violence. 

 Altier, Mary Beth (2021) “Violent Extremist Disengagement and Reintegration: Lessons from Over 30 Years of DDR.” The RESOLVE Network.

Jacobson, Adam (2021) “Back to the Dark Side: Explaining the CIA’s Repeated Use of Torture.” Terrorism and Political Violence.

Altier, Mary Beth (2021) “Criminal or Terrorist?: Fear, Bias, and Public Support for Prisoner Re-entry Programs.” Terrorism and Political Violence.

Schnaufer, Tad II (2021) “The US-NATO Relationship: The Cost of Maintaining Political Pressure on Allies.” Georgetown Journal of International Affairs. 

Kalilou, Ousseyni (2021) “Climate Change and Conflict in the Sahel: The Acacia Gum Tree As a Tool for Environmental Peacebuilding." International Affairs.

Altier, Mary Beth, Emma Leonard Boyle, and John Horgan (2020) “Terrorist Transformations: The Link Between Terrorist Roles and Terrorist Disengagement.” Studies in Conflict and Terrorism.

Sidhu, W.P.S. (2020) “India and the United Nations Security Council: Deja vu? IIC Quarterly. 

Salyk-Virk, Melissa (2020) “Building Community Resilience: Community Perspectives of the Countering Violent Extremism Pilot Program in Minneapolis/St. Paul.Studies in Conflict and Terrorism.

Altier, Mary Beth, Emma Leonard Boyle, and John Horgan (2019) “Returning to the Fight: An Empirical Analysis of Terrorist Reengagement and Recidivism.” Terrorism and Political Violence. 

Altier, Mary Beth, Emma Leonard Boyle, Neil Shortland, and John Horgan (2018) "Why They Leave: An Analysis of Terrorist Disengagement Events from 87 Autobiographical Accounts." Security Studies.

Sidhu, W.P.S. (2017) “The strategic elimination of nuclear weapons: a redefined global agenda for nuclear disarmament.Nonproliferation Review.

Bowen, Andrew (2017) "Coercive Diplomacy and the Donbas: Explaining Russian Strategy in Eastern Ukraine." Journal of Strategic Studies.

Jacobson, Adam (2017) "Could the United States Reinstitute An Official Torture Policy?" Journal of Strategic Security.

Schnaufer, Tad II (2017) "Redefining Hybrid Warfare: Russia's Non-linear War Against the West." Journal of Strategic Security.

Einhorn, Robert and W.P.S. Sidhu (2017) “The strategic chain linking Pakistan, India, China, and the United States.” Brookings Institution.

Special Issue of Journal of Strategic Security on Emerging Threats vol. 9 no. 3 (2016); Guest Editor, Mary Beth Altier

Novenario, Celine (2016) “Differentiating Al Qaeda and the Islamic State Through Strategies Publicized in Jihadist Magazines.” Studies in Conflict and Terrorism.

Horgan, John, Mary Beth Altier, Neil Shortland, and Max Taylor (2016) "Walking Away: The Disengagement and De-radicalization of a Violent Right Wing Extremist." Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism & Political Aggression.

Bowen, Andrew and Mark Galeotti (2014) “Latvia and Money Laundering: An Examination of Regulatory and Institutional Effectiveness in Combating Money Laundering.” Central European Journal of International and Security Studies.

Altier, Mary Beth, Christian Thoroughgood, and John Horgan (2014) "Turning Away from Terrorism: Lessons from Psychology, Sociology, and Criminology." Journal of Peace Research.


Books

Ankersen, Christopher and W.P.S. Sidhu (eds.) (2021) The Future of Global Affairs: Managing Discontinuity, Disruption, and Destruction. Palgrave Macmillan.

Clarke, Colin. (2020) After the Caliphate: The Islamic State & the Future of Terrorist Diaspora. Wiley. 

Jarmon, Jack A. and Pano Yannakogeorgos (2018) The Cyber Threat and Globalization: The Impact on US National and International Security. Rowman and Littlefield.

Clarke, Colin. (2015) Terrorism, Inc.: The Financing of Terrorism, Insurgency and Irregular Warfare. Praeger.

Oppenheimer, Michael F. (2015) Pivotal Countries, Alternate Futures: Using Scenarios to Manage American Strategy. Oxford University Press.

Ankersen, Christopher (2014) The Politics of Civil-Military Cooperation: Canada in Bosnia, Kosovo, and Afghanistan. Palgrave Macmillan.


Book Chapters

Ayandele, Olajumoke (2024) “A Gendered Dimension in Understanding Armed Banditry in Northwest Nigeria: Vulnerability and Involvement” in Ojo, J. S., Oyewole, S., & Aina, F. (eds.) Armed Banditry in Nigeria: Evolution, Dynamics, and Trajectories, Palgrave Macmillan.

Oppenheimer, M. (2023) “Chapter 2: Hard Times Ahead for US Soft Power.” In Soft Power and the Future of US Foreign Policy. Pp. 25-42.

Sidhu, W.P.S.  (2023) "The Nuclear Disarmament and Non-Proliferation Regime", in P.D. Williams and Matt McDonald, eds., Security Studies: An Introduction. 4th edition. Taylor & Francis.

Sidhu, W.P.S. (2023) “Weapons of Mass Destruction” in Thomas G. Weiss and Rorden Wilkinson, eds., International Organization and Global Governance, (3rd edition). Routledge.

Sidhu, W.P.S. (2019) “The Accidental Global Peacekeeper” in Manu Bhagwan, ed., India and the Cold War. UNC Press.

Sidhu, W.P.S. (2019) “Regional Peace and Security” in Simon Chesterman and Ben Saul, eds., Oxford Handbook for International Law in Asia. Oxford University Press.

Sidhu, W.P.S. (2018) “Regional Groups and Alliances”, in Thomas G. Weiss and Sam Daws, eds., The Oxford Handbook on the United Nations. (2nd edition). Oxford University Press.

Sidhu, W.P.S.  (2016) "Non-Proliferation and Disarmament", in J. K. Cogan, I. Hurd and I. Johnstone, eds., The Oxford Handbook of International Organizations. Oxford University Press.

Sidhu, W.P.S. (2015) "Weapons of Mass Destruction: Managing Proliferation" in S. von Einsiedel, D. M. Malone, and B. S. Ugarte, eds., The UN Security Council in the 21st Century. Lynne Rienner.


Op-Eds and Other Publications

Altier, Mary Beth & Kane, John. V. (2023) “How Politicians Talk About Hostile Countries Influences How Forceful the Public Wants Their Response to Be.” London School of Economics USAPP Blog.

Mason, Lilliana, Wronski, Julie, & Kane, John. V.  (2022) Republicans and Democrats have split over whether to support multiethnic democracy, our research shows.” The Washington Post.

Altier, Mary Beth (2021) “Lessons for Reintegrating Islamic State Detainees.” Lawfare.

Oppenheimer, Michael F. (2020) “Longer Term Perspectives on the Iran Crisis.” The Hill.

Sidhu, W.P.S. and Michaela Millender (2020) “Empowering "We the peoples" in the UN's 75th Year”, IPI Global Observatory.

Sidhu, W.P.S. (2020) “How Will Sino-Indian Competition Impact India's Upcoming Tenure on the UNSC?IPI Global Observatory.

Ankersen, Christopher (2020) “Melancholic and Fascinated: Artificial Intelligence, Authentic Humanity, and the Future of War.” Wavell Room. Wavell Writes 2019 Essay Prize.

Altier, Mary Beth and Emma Leonard Boyle (2019) The London Bridge knife attacker was a bad risk for release. Here’s why.” The Washington Post.


Public Events & Workshops

Strong Cities Network - Fourth Global Summit panel photo
  • The Future of Democracy w/ Richard Haas (President, Council on Foreign Relations)
  • A Whole-of-City Approach to Preventing Hate & Extremism: The New York City Model in collaboration with the Strong Cities Network & New York City Mayor’s Office
  • Competition or Collaboration? Exploring Economic and Security Determinants for a Stable African Continent w/Olajumoke Ayandele (NYU CGA)
  • Power at the Pentagon: Considering Civil-Military Relations and Representation w/Jessica D. Blankshain (US Naval War College), Jim Golby (University of Texas, Austin), Meg Guilford (University of Pennsylvania), Danielle Lupton (Colgate University), Daniel White (Modern War Institute), and Christopher Ankersen (NYU CGA).
  • A World Safe for Democracy: A Conversation with John Ikenberry (Princeton University) w/ Michael Oppenheimer (NYU CGA)
  • Inside Jokes to IRL: How Bad Actors Use Viral Memes to Hijack the Narrative and Incite Real-World Violence w/Alex Goldenberg (Lead Intelligence Analyst, Network Contagion Research Institute)
  • Post-Conflict State Re-building After Mass Atrocities w/Darin Johnson (Associate Professor of Law, Howard University), Milena Sterio (Charles R. Emrick Jr.-Cafee Halter & Griswold Professor of Law, Cleveland-Marshall College of Law), Jennifer Trahan (NYU CGA), Paul Williams (Rebecca Grazier Professor in Law and International Relations at American University), and Andras Vamos-Goldman (NYU CGA, founder and former Executive Director, Justice Rapid Response).
  • Security Challenges and Shifting Power Dynamics in the COVID Era w/ Admiral Samuel J. Locklear, Mary Beth Altier (NYU CGA), & Christopher Ankersen (NYU CGA).
  • Pathways for Cyber Peace in an Age of Constant Conflict w/ Andrea Bonime-Blanc (Founder & CEO, GEC Risk Advisory), Scott Shackelford (Associate Professor & Cybersecurity Program Chair, Indiana University of Bloomington), Pano Yannakogeorgos (NYU CGA)
  • Disinformation in a Post-Truth World w/Danny Rogers (Co-Founder & CTO, Disinformation Index), Dr. John Kane (NYU Center for Global Affairs), & Alexis Gerber (Editor in Chief, Straus News-Manhattan).
  • Securitization in the Israeli and Jordanian Reaction to COVID-19, Joshua Krasna (NYU CGA & Foreign Policy Research Institute)
  • COVID-19: Boon or Bane for Multilateralism w/ W.P.S. Sidhu (NYU CGA)
  • Possible Effects of the Pandemic on US Power & Policy w/Michael Oppenheimer (NYU CGA)
  • Viruses Versus Violent Extremists: Assessing and Responding to National Security Threats w/ Mary Beth Altier (NYU CGA)
  • At War with an Invisible Enemy: Securitizing the COVID-19 Response w/Christopher Ankersen (NYU CGA)
  • The Future of US Foreign Policy w/ Anne-Marie Slaughter (CEO, New America), Gideon Rose (Editor, Foreign Affairs) & Michael Oppenheimer (NYU CGA)
  • Women, Peace, Security and COVID 19 w/Anne Marie Goetz (NYU CGA)
  • The Prospects for Cyber Peace w/ Scott Shackelford (Associate Professor & Cybersecurity Program Chair, Indiana University of Bloomington), Pano Yannakogeorgos (NYU CGA), Frederick Douze (Professor, French Institute of Geopolitics at Paris 8 University), Karen Guttieri (Associate Professor, US Air Force Cyber College) & Chrisopher Ankersen (NYU CGA)
  • Futures of Counterterrorism w/ David Scharia (Chief, UN Counter Terrorism Executive Directorate), Ali Soufan (CEO, The Soufan Group), Melissa Salyk-Virk (Senior Policy Analyst, New America) & Mary Beth Altier (NYU CGA)
  • Non Proliferation Policy in the Trump Era w/ Suzanne DiMaggio (Senior Fellow, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace), Lori Esposito Murray (Adjunct Senior Fellow, Council on Foreign Relations), Ankit Panda (Adjunct Senior Fellow, Federation of American Scientists) & W.P.S. Sidhu ((NYU CGA)
  • Great Power Conflicts in the Age of Cyber Insecurity w/ Clint Watts (Foreign Policy Research Institute), Mary Beth Altier (NYU CGA) & Christopher Ankersen (NYU CGA)
  • The South China Sea: US Foreign Policy Challenges w/ Kimball Chen (Chairman, The Global LPG Partnership & Energy Transportation Group), Rorry Daniels (Deputy Project Director, Forum on Asia-Pacific Security, National Committee on American Foreign Policy), Brigadier General S. Clinton Hinote (Deputy Director, Air Force Warfighting Integration Capability), Earl Carr (Managing Director, Momentum Advisors)
  • Russia and the US: Here We Go Again w/Peter Clement (Senior Research Scholar, Columbia School of International and Public Affairs) & Rick Levitt (NYU CGA)
  • Small Wars, Big Data: The Info Revolution in Modern Conflict w/ Jacob Shapiro (Professor, Princeton University), Mary Beth Altier (NYU CGA) & Christopher Ankersen (NYU CGA)
  • Ian Bremmer – US VS THEM: The Failure of Globalism w/ Ian Bremmer (President, Eurasia Group) & Richard Wolffe (Columnist, The Guardian)
  • 21st-Century UN Reform: Advancing Peace and Security w/ Cherith Norman Chalet (Minister Counselor, US Mission), Tamrat Samuel (Assistant Secretary General, Senior Coordinator for Peace & Reform), Paige Arthur (Deputy Director, NYU CIC), W.P.S. Sidhu (NYU CGA)
  • The Good Friday Agreement: Looking Back, Looking Ahead w/ Senator George Mitchell & Thomas Hill (NYU CGA)
  • Understanding the US National Security and Intelligence Landscape and What Lies Ahead w/ John E. McLaughlin (former Acting and Deputy Director of the CIA), Yaël Eisenstat (former CIA analyst and national security advisor to Vice President Biden), and Alexandra Rogan (Senior Vice President, Teneo Holdings)
  • Host of 11th Annual International Conference of the Society for Terrorism Research Conference, August 2017
  • Innovative Approaches in the Fight Against Violent Extremism: New Tools Being Utilized by Community Groups, Law Enforcement, and NGOs w/ Seth DuCharme (Chief, National Security & Cybercrime Section, US Attorney's Office, EDNY), Tara Maller (Spokesperson and Senior Policy Advisor, the Counter Extremism Project; former CIA Military Analyst), Nate Snyder (former Principal Senior Advisor & Chief of Staff for Policy - Office of Community Partnerships and US Countering Violent Extremism Task Force, Department of Homeland Security) and Mary Beth Altier (NYU CGA)
  • The Next Steps for Multilateral Disarmament w/Ban Ki Moon (UN Secretary General), Kim Won-Soo (Undersecretary General for Disarmament), Carlos Sergio Duarte (Ambassador and Permanent Representative of Brazil to the UN), Ray Acheson (Director, Reaching Critical Will), and W.P.S. Sidhu (NYU CGA)
  • A Conversation with President of Estonia, Toomas Henrik Ilves, on “Modern World – Modern Threats? Responses to Hybrid Aggression” w/Mark Galeotti

US Army War College International Crisis Strategic Negotiation Exercise

Negotiation Exercise round table
  • 2024 South China Sea
  • 2023 Cyprus
  • 2022 The Arctic
  • 2021 Sudan/South Sudan
  • 2020 Syrian Civil War
  • 2019 Korean Peninsula
  • 2018 Jammu-Kashmir
  • 2017 South China Sea
  • 2016 Nagorno-Karabakh

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